How Power Grid works in India??
The Power Grid Corporation of India oversees the distribution of power via its transmission network spread across the country. It has 95,009 circuit-km of the transmission network, 1,36,358 MVA transformation capacity, and approximately 28,000 MW inter-regional power transfer capacity. India is divided into five electrical regions, namely, Northern (NR), Eastern (ER), Western (WR), Southern (SR) and North-Eastern (NER). Of these, the four zones NR, ER, WR, and NER are inter-connected and form what is known as the New Grid. The Southern zone is synchronously interconnected to the New Grid. Every zone is then responsible for the power needs of the states that fall under it. There is a load dispatch center in every zone that oversees the transfer of power from the generating plant to the states and further. Depending on the need, every state then buys power and has to adhere to the withdrawal limit.
Owing to the size of our country, and the fact that the power generating plants are scattered across the terrain, we have a very complex power transmission network in place. But its functioning, from power generation to power distribution is more or less the same across all regional zones. In each zone, power from various power plants is subjected to inter-state transmission, wherein the regional load dispatch centers monitor and control its distribution to the various states in each zone as scheduled. The next step is an intra-state transmission, wherein the state load dispatch center allocates power to various areas within the state, and then at the local level. The power is generated at very high voltage but stepped down at each substation.